What is a programming language: definition, types and examples

Language has been the primary means of human communication and interaction for 100,000 years. For society, language contains words that need to be communicated, and the words themselves are abstract, but they show meaning, refer to objects or actions, etc.

When you look at the computer, you will find that it is not much different. There are a lot of hardware and software that need to communicate with each other. Your app interacts with your mouse, keyboard or even a microphone, and can read files from your disk storage etc. But in the end, the machine understands nothing but binary, ones and zeros, which creates a synthesis of meaning.

The oldest computers were actually programmed by manually changing ones and zeros, changing circuits and wires. Of course it is not easy to create many programs because most of them are only used for certain applications, and their size is so large that they are very limited. That is why the creation of programming languages ​​is a revolutionary step that takes this field to another level.

Unlike regular languages, keywords in programming languages ​​are limited, and by combining these keywords, developers can create different types of software. There is a special program that converts the code you write into machine language that the machine understands. So what is a programming language? In short, a programming language is a set of instructions that humans use to interact with computers.

Read also: What is programming (programming)?

Understanding programming languages

A programming language is a tool used to write instructions that a computer has to follow. Computers “think” in binary – strings of ones and zeros. Programming languages ​​allow us to translate the numbers 1 and 0 into something that a human can understand and write. Programming languages ​​consist of a series of codes that act as bridges that allow humans to translate our thoughts into instructions that computers can understand.

What is the code?

This code is exactly the same as writing help paragraphs or creating a to-do list on a computer. Unlike humans, the to-do lists and instructions we write for computers have to be very detailed and written with some logic.

Using code and programming, you can have computers draw complex shapes and create attractive computer graphics, then create software that understands game mechanics that can help you create games that look real with the collision of gravity and particles, with this software you can create more than all. Intense and immersive type of game.

With code and programming, you can create and publish content around the world with your personal blog and website with a look that fits your style. You can build technology-driven business solutions, reach more customers, and meet broader needs.

In addition, using code and programming, you can create smart home applications, such as automatic pet feeders, automatic plant sprayers, or even create robots that can assist with household tasks and become your virtual assistant to talk to and understand you. Contrary to what many people think, there are a lot of arts involved in computer engineering and computer science.

Types of programming languages

procedural programming language

Procedural programming languages ​​are used to execute a series of statements that lead to a result. These type of programming languages ​​usually use a lot of variables, heavy loops, and other elements that separate them from functional programming languages. Procedural language functions can control variables, in addition to returning the value of the function. For example, print information.

functional programming language

Functional programming languages ​​typically use stored data, often avoiding loops in favor of recursive functions. The main focus of functional programming is on the value of the return function, and side effects and inconsistencies indicate that state storage is highly undesirable.

For example, in very useful languages, if a function is called, it is expected that no power output will be changed or implemented. However, he can make arithmetic calls and change the parameters of these calls.

Functional languages ​​are usually easier and make abstract problems easier to understand, however, they are “far from machine” in that their programming paradigm makes it hard to know precisely, but the code is translated into machine language (which is often a problem in programming). System).

object-oriented programming language

This programming language views the world as a set of objects that contain internal data and external parts that access that data. The purpose of this programming language is to think about errors by separating them into a set of objects that provide services that can be used to solve a particular problem.

One of the main principles of object-oriented programming languages ​​is the encapsulation that everything an object needs should be inside that object. The language also emphasizes reusability through inheritance and the ability to deploy existing applications without having to change a lot of code using polymorphism.

scripting language

These programming languages ​​are often procedural and may consist of object-oriented language elements, but they fall into a category of their own because they are usually not complete programming languages ​​with support for developing large systems. For example, they may not have compile-time type checking. Usually, these languages ​​require a little syntax to get started.

Logical programming language

This type of language allows programmers to issue declarative statements and then allow machines to think about the consequences of those statements. In a sense, this language doesn’t tell the computer how to do something, but it does impose constraints on what it should think about doing.

Calling this group a “language type” is actually a bit confusing. It is very easy to program in an object-oriented style in C language. In fact, most languages ​​include ideas and features from different areas, which only helps to increase the usability of this type of language. However, most programming languages ​​are not the best at all programming styles.

Read also: The difference between high-level and low-level programming languages

Examples of programming languages

In this section, we will summarize some examples of the most popular programming languages ​​and their uses. PYPL . indicator GitHub ranks programming languages ​​according to the number of times tutorials are searched for on Google. The most popular programming languages ​​are as follows:

  • snakes: Python is a versatile programming language. It can be used in a variety of fields from data science and machine learning to web development and is a great first language to learn.
  • Java: Another great language when you’re getting started, Java can be used for many things, including mobile applications, software development, and large systems development. AP Computer Science is currently taught in Java.
  • Javascript: JavaScript is an easy-to-use front-end and back-end language that enables web applications, game development, and mobile applications.
  • C#: C#, Microsoft’s popular programming language, can be used for a variety of applications, including pgame development, enterprise software, video games, mobile apps, and more.
  • C++: C++ is one of the most powerful programming languages ​​and is used in a variety of industries, including VR, software and game development, robotics, and scientific computing.
  • PHP: PHP is a widely used server-side language. This is a good choice if you are interested in creating dynamic web applications and working well with databases and HTML.
  • s: R is a popular statistical programming language among data scientists. It is used to answer questions by analyzing data and creating data visualizations.
  • Swift: Swift is Apple’s programming language and is a must if you plan to develop apps for iOS and macOS.
  • KotlinKotlin is an open source programming language developed by JetBrains. It is popular for web development, Android development, and more.


This is an explanation of what a programming language is. Simply put, a programming language is a formal computer language designed to communicate instructions, commands, or commands to devices, especially computers. Programming languages ​​can be used to write programs to control the behavior of machines.

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