RIP definition: How it works and features

RIP (Information Routing Protocol) is a routing protocol used to exchange routing information between dynamic routers over IP or IPX. Before discussing the meaning of RIP and how it works, you need to first understand what routing is?

Read also: Understanding OSPF: How it works and features

What is routing?

Routing is a protocol used to get a route from one network to another. These routes are called routes, and route information can be dynamically assigned to other routers or statically assigned to other routers.

An administrator chooses a dynamic routing protocol based on the state of the network topology. For example, what is the size of the network, the available bandwidth, the processing power of the router, the make and model of the router, and the protocols used in the network. Routing is the process by which a router routes packets to the destination network. A router makes decisions based on the IP address of the packet.

All routers use the destination IP address to send packets. For the routing decision to be correct, the router must learn how to reach its destination. When a router uses dynamic routing, this information is learned from other routers. When you use static routing, a network administrator manually configures the network information to be routed.

If the routing used is static, then the configuration must be done manually, the network administrator must enter or delete static routes if there is a change in topology. On a large network, if you continue to use static routing, it will be a waste of time for network administrators to update the routing table. Therefore, static routing is only possible for small-scale networks. While dynamic routing is typically implemented in large-scale networks and requires more capabilities from the administrator, one type of dynamic routing is RIP.

Read also: Understanding static and dynamic routing

Definition of RIP

Routing information protocol (RIP) is one of the Routing protocol which uses Distance vectortherefore RIP uses the amount Hop to determine the best path to a specific network address, but by default RIP has a maximum hop count of 15 hop. Thus, Hop th16 will still be considered inaccessible (Untouchable). Therefore, RIP may work well on small network types, but RIP is not effective on large networks or networks with a large number of routers.

RIP for IPv4 is divided into 2 versions RIPv1 & RIPv2. As for IPv6, you can use RIPng. RIPv1 send Routing table completely to all interface which activates every 30 seconds. RIPv1 uses Class routewhich means that RIPv1 does not support subnet. While RIPv2 already offers something called Routing prefixwhich contains information Net mask.

History of RIP

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) was designed in the 1980’s for use with the Xerox Network Systems (XNS) suite of protocols using the Bellman-Ford algorithm, which was first used in computer networks in 1968 as a precursor. of the ARPANET routing algorithm.

RIP was first defined in RFC 1058 (1988). This protocol has been developed several times, resulting in RIP Version 2 (RFC 2453). Both versions are still in use today, although they have been technically overtaken by more advanced techniques, such as the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and the OSI IS-IS protocol. RIP has also been adapted for use in IPv6 networks, known as the RIPng (RIP Next Generation) standard, published in RFC 2080 (1997).

RIP became popular for the first time due to its inclusion in version 4.2 of the Berkeley BSD UNIX platform. It is supported by Microsoft Windows NT Server and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server and has been adapted to AppleTalk network systems as a routing table maintenance protocol (RTMP).

How RIP works

RIP is a remote routing vector that advertises routing information by sending routing updates through the interface on the router. This update contains a series of information that represents a subnet and a value.

The metric is how good the route / path is based on the router’s perspective, the lower the value of the metric, the better the path. All routers that receive a copy of the remote vector routing update receive this information and may add some paths to their routing table.

The receiving router will only add a new route about this subnet based on this routing update only if it doesn’t have information about this route / route beforehand or if it already knows this route, but this new information turns out to have better route information ( smaller metrics).

In routing updates, if the subnet mask is not included in the information, it is called class routing. Classfull routing does not support VLSM (variable length subnet mask). RIP uses the number of hops as a measure. In simple terms, the RIP work process is as follows:

  1. The host listens for the broadcast address if there is a routing update from the gateway.
  2. The host will first check the local routing table if it receives a routing update.
  3. By default, RIP updates data every 30 seconds.
  4. If the route does not exist, the information is immediately entered in the routing table.
  5. If the route already exists, the smallest measurement will be taken as a reference.
  6. Routes through a gateway will be deleted if there is no update from that gateway within a certain time
  7. Especially for gateways, RIP will send routing updates to the broadcast addresses of each connected network

RIP features

  • Remote vector routing protocol
  • Hop counting as a route selection value
  • Maximum number of hop 15, hop ke 16 dianggap inaccessible
  • By default, the routing is updated every 30 seconds
  • RIPv1 (classfull routing protocol) does not send the subnet mask to the update
  • RIPv2 (classless routing protocol) send the subnet mask to update2. How static routing works

Advantages and disadvantages of RIP

Advantages of RIP:

  • Using the triggered update method.
  • RIP has a timer to know when the router should return routing information.
  • If a network change occurs while the timer has not expired, the router must continue to send routing information because the change has been triggered (update triggered).
  • Setting up routing using RIP is straightforward and provides fairly acceptable results, especially if network connection failures are rare.

Disadvantages of RIP:

  • Limited number of hosts.
  • RIP does not have information about the subnets of each route.
  • RIP does not support Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM).
  • When running for the first time, he only knows how to direct himself (local information) and does not know the topology of the network in which he is


Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a routing protocol that uses distance vector routing algorithms. RIP does not have a complete map of the existing network. RIP uses the hop number as a measure, and the link to the lowest hop number will be the best link (the best way).

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